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The reader’s knowledge of planetary encounter and N-body literature is assumed since it is basic to the paper but unreferenced. Y.) Only minor grammatical changes have been made for publication and numerous footnotes have been added for clarification.

This would require a selective curvature in the solar wind or other such containment mechanism in the IBCM; however, it has been shown that neither solar wind nor solar radiation can provide such a containment mechanism.(29,30) The IBCM is only valid for the region of space well within the orbit of Jupiter. [However,evidence is accumutating that the Sun’s magnetic field plays the fundamental role in heating and containing the corona. That is, as the comet transforms into a hot young planet with a circulized orbit (to be discussed in detail), the original planetary atmosphere will already be present (Venus being a prime example).

The two largest comets in history (comet 17 IV) were recorded outside Jupiter’s orbit (1927 IV was seen beyond the orbit of Saturn).(31) Comets with sunward “spikes” are explained in the IBCM as a thin Type I tail which only “appears” to extend in the sunward direction. Another source is the chance grazining of the Sun, as in the case of the comets of 18; some grazing comets are actually seen to fluoresce after leaving the Sun, indicating the possible presence of a newly acquired atmosphere.

The answer to this is that it is now known that the charge to mass ratios of celestial bodies vary greatly with size, with the most notable effects occurring only in the motions of the smallest bodies. The Sun cannot continuously expel an excess current of protons indefinitely, so there must be a current sheet of charge that flows continually between the nebular ion cloud and the Sun. The family groups of long period comets coming from the same direction in space and arriving in relatively closely packed groups,(3) therefore, are coming from the site of a nova which occurred millions of years ago.

This is discussed at length throughout the present paper and has been 20 observed in Saturn’s system. In 1982, Pioneer II data confirmed the existence of such a current sheet flowing lengthwise along the Sun’s magnetic tail. A major result is that all the celestial bodies (stars, gas planets, terrestrial planets, moons, asteroids, and comets) are catalogued in one common grouping which is conceptually satisfying (as opposed to the numerous special cases defined in the nebular theory of OSS).

Also, it is particularly hard to imagine a sungrazing ice ball passing through the 1 million degree solar corona, spending a number of hours grazing the solar atmosphere (not to mention passing through the solar Roche limit on a highly eccentric orbit), and passing to the outside again relatively unaffected. This pure electron cloud with a temperature of millions of degrees is certainly not held in place by gravity and there is no apparent containment mechanism from without. Even within the asteroid belt, studies have shown that the number of asteroids increases as a geometric progression with decreasing size.(6) For this reason, the few close encounters of comets with planets that have been observed in the past 300 years show only comets with small masses.

On the contrary, the coma is well defined up to an edge and does not exist appreciably beyond this. This would account for the higher velocities of protons observed in the solar wind. It should be expected that the Jupiter-Galileo orbiter (presently scheduled for the spring of 1986) will see comet nuclei (e.g., small asteroidal bodies) as they enter Jupiter’s radiation belts and detect the electromagnetic effects that must accompany such an encounter.Observed anti-tails (sunward fan-shaped tails) have been explained as due to the rotating ice ball interacting with the solar wind.(26) Comet wandering is claimed to be due to the ejection of jets from the ice ball.(27,28) The curved Type II tails as observed in Donati’s comet and comet West follow the comet in its orbit. At any rate, what holds the corona in place remains an unsolvedmystery. The primary source is the nebular ion cloud (explained in Part I, KRONOS IX:1) which contains the light elements up to approximately sulfur, as this is what is observed in comet tails of extreme length.

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Additionally, two charging mechanisms are identified, both of which produce a net negative charge on the comet nucleus.One shows the comet with a large nucleus, the other without. Gases are certainly released by volcanic activity even today, but this article contends that much of the original atmosphere was formed as part of the comet phase of planetary evolution.As the comet is drawn twice, it was the painter’s intention to draw the sunward spike in the form of a helix. Spiraling of tail material is sometimes observed in comets.It will be shown that Jupiter’s spinning inside the orbit of charged lo creates Jupiter’s magnetic field, and not vice versa.(19) The widely publicized tidal heating of lo to account for its great internal heat and volcanism has been questioned.(20) The tidal theory predicts the greatest heat to be at the north and south poles of lo,(21) but almost all volcanic activity is observed within 30degrees of its equator. Once again they erroneously assume that the magnetic fields simply exist. As the comet achieves a circular orbit, it no longer will cross the Surfaces of equipotential and will remain essentially at a single potential. Sherrerd, “The Electromagnetic Circularization of Planetary Orbits”, KRONOS IV:4 (1979), pp. Past the orbit of Pluto, known from Pioneer II data. It is now apparent that the observation of the higher proton current in the solar wind should have been interpreted property a long time ago; but, as with many other cases of interpretation of data, scientists make data fit their theories and not vice versa. Two results of the new galaxy concept (2) are that the stellar core is not one of collapsed hydrogen, but is a solid planetary type core since all the celestial bodies are initially formed in the same way, and that the heavy isotopes – detected spectroscopically after a nova – come from this core; they are not generated in the explosion as previously thought.As with all “accepted” theories, it has been favored because it supports the a priori assumption that everything in the solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago. and that thew in turn cause the observed electric effects (i.e., the alteration Of Charged particle counts new Saturn’s small moons, the electrical discharge that occurs in Saturn’s atmosphere every time Dione passes overhead, the current sheet flowing constantly between Dione and Saturn – announced in October, 1982, and similar to the lo-Jupiter current sheet – the giga-amp electrical discharges that map regularly among Saturn’s rings, the correlation between electrical discharges and the “rotating spokes”, the non-Keplerian orbits of certain ring particles and small moons, and the twisted F-ring). This is a simplistic explanation but applies well in the innersolar system where the equipotential surfaces are nearly spherical (past Jupiter, the Sun’s magnetic tail will distort these surfaces). 55-58; Ragnar Forshufvud, “On the Circularization of the Orbit of Venus”, KRONOS VII:2 (1982), pp. It has been known for a long time that the velocities of protons in the solar wind are much greater than those of electrons; however, scientists have maintained equal currents of electrons and protons because of the a priori assumption that space is electrically neutral. From analysis of a solid core exploding into random assortment of pieces, a second result shows that there will be great numbers of small fragments, with fewer fragments of increasingly larger size.Earlier papers (1,2,3) used similar concepts to predict the existence of strong electrical fields in the vicinity of Saturn, showing Saturn and its ring system to be analogous to the Sun and its zodiacal disk. This paper was produced during the 1979-80, 1980-81 academic years while the author was a lecturer in the Physics and Mathematics Departments of Comell University (Ithaca, N.