Local area connection validating identity
Those who implement XMPP software and deploy XMPP services are encouraged to seek additional advice regarding appropriate timing of stream-checking and connection-checking methods, particularly when power-constrained devices are being used (e.g., in mobile environments).
Stream Errors When the Host Is Unspecified or Unknown 188.8.131.52.
Exchange of Stream Headers and Stream Features 5.4.2.
Security Warning: The stream ID MUST be both unpredictable and non-repeating because it can be security-critical when reused by an authentication mechanisms, as is the case for Server Dialback [XEP‑0220] For initial stream headers, the initiating entity MUST NOT include the 'id' attribute; however, if the 'id' attribute is included, the receiving entity MUST ignore it.
The stream ID MUST be generated by the receiving entity when it sends a response stream header and MUST BE unique within the receiving application (normally a server).
The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is an application profile of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) that enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).
The client might not know the XMPP identity, e.g., because the XMPP identity is assigned at a level other than the XMPP application layer (as in the Generic Security Service Application Program Interface [GSS‑API]) or is derived by the server from information provided by the client (as in some deployments of end-user certificates with the SASL EXTERNAL mechanism). For initial stream headers in client-to-server communication, the 'from' attribute is the XMPP identity of the principal controlling the client, i.e., a JID of the form .
Furthermore, it is preferable to be liberal in accepting idle peers, since experience has shown that doing so improves the reliability of communication over XMPP networks and that it is typically more efficient to maintain a stream between two servers than to aggressively time out such a stream. For response stream headers in both client-to-server and server-to-server communication, the receiving entity MUST include the 'from' attribute and MUST set its value to one of the receiving entity's FQDNs (which MAY be an FQDN other than that specified in the 'to' attribute of the initial stream header, as described under Section 184.108.40.206 For initial stream headers in both client-to-server and server-to-server communication, the initiating entity MUST include the 'to' attribute and MUST set its value to a domainpart that the initiating entity knows or expects the receiving entity to service. Because a server is a "public entity" on the XMPP network, it MUST include the 'from' attribute after the confidentiality and integrity of the stream are protected via TLS or an equivalent security layer. One common method for checking the TCP connection is to send a space character (U 0020) between XML stanzas, which is allowed for XML streams as described under Section 11.7; the sending of such a space character is properly called a "whitespace keepalive" (the term "whitespace ping" is often used, despite the fact that it is not a ping since no "pong" is possible). In addition, the use of multiple streams in each direction (which is a somewhat frequent deployment choice for server-to-server connectivity among large XMPP service providers) further complicates application-level checking of XMPP streams and their underlying TCP connections, because there is no necessary correlation between any given initial stream and any given response stream. Therefore, it is unnecessary to close the stream with or without an error, and it is appropriate instead to simply terminate the TCP connection. The 'from' attribute specifies an XMPP identity of the entity sending the stream element.